['Having one's nose in order. Towards a post-marxist theory of language']
'Neuzen in orde. Naar een post-marxistische taaltheorie'
De Gids 165 (1993): 197-205
A comparison of three theories of language which by their social orientation are more balanced than many others – Antonio Gramsci's theory of ideology, Valentin Vološinov's dialogic philosophy of language, and Michel Pêcheux's discourse analysis – gives rise to making a plea in favour of combining their basic assumptions: (1) social and ideological relationships are no objective or subjective effects of autonomous language forms, but are part of historical processes, and only within such processes those forms come into (inter-)action; (2) social unity and division are constructed through language, both to the same extent; (3) any pursuit of a coherent social identity entails the risk of totalitarian claims to power, which are to be restricted by proving that any shared conclusion allows for a multitude of shifting reformulations.